Template Metaprogramming - Hybrid Programming


First of all, hybrid programming is not an official term. I created it to emphasize an exciting aspect of templates. The difference between function arguments and template arguments.


I ended my last post, "Template Metaprogramming - How it Works" with a riddle. Here is the context for the riddle.

The Riddle

The function power and Power calculate the pow(2, 10). power is executed at run time and Power at compile time.

// power.cpp

#include <iostream>

int power(int m, int n) {                               
    int r = 1;
    for(int k = 1; k <= n; ++k) r *= m;
    return r;                                        

template<int m, int n>                              
struct Power {
    static int const value = m * Power<m, n-1>::value;
template<int m>                                     
struct Power<m, 0> {                                   
    static int const value = 1;                       

int main() {
    std::cout << '\n';	
    std::cout << "power(2, 10)= " << power(2, 10) << '\n';
    std::cout << "Power<2,10>::value= " << Power<2, 10>::value << '\n';
    std::cout << '\n';


If you want more details about both functions, read my previous post, "Template Metaprogramming - How it Works".

So far, so good, but what is happening in the following example?


// powerHybrid.cpp

#include <iostream>

template<int n>
int Power(int m){
    return m * Power<n-1>(m);

int Power<0>(int m){
    return 1;

int main() {
    std::cout << '\n';

    std::cout << "Power<0>(10): " << Power<0>(20) << '\n';
    std::cout << "Power<1>(10): " << Power<1>(10) << '\n';
    std::cout << "Power<2>(10): " << Power<2>(10) << '\n';

    std::cout << '\n';



As expected, Power does its job.


Here is the riddle in short one more: Is Power a function or a metafunction?


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Hybrid Programming

To make it short.

The calls Power<0>(10), Power<1>(10), and Power<2>(10) use sharp and round brackets and calculate 10 to the power of 0, 1, and 2. This means 0, 1, and 2 are compile-time arguments, and 10 is a run-time argument. To say it differently: Power is, at the same time, a function and a metafunction. Let me elaborate more on this point.

Power at Run Time

First, I can instantiate Power for 2, give it the name Power2 and use it in a for-loop.


// powerHybridRuntime.cpp

#include <iostream>

template<int n>
int Power(int m){
    return m * Power<n-1>(m);

int Power<0>(int m){
    return 1;

int main() {
    std::cout << '\n';

    auto Power2of = Power<2>;

    for (int i = 0; i <= 20; ++i) {
        std::cout << "Power2of(" << i << ")= "
                  << Power2of(i)  << '\n';

    std::cout << '\n';



Power2of enables it to calculate the squares of 0 ... 20 at run time.


You cannot invoke Power with different template arguments in the for-loop. Template instantiation requires a constant expression. To make it short: The following use of Power fails with a compile-time error that "the value of 'i' is not usable in a constant expression".

for (int i = 0; i <= 20; ++i) {

    std::cout << "Power<" << i << ">(2)= " << Power<i>(2) << '\n';



Honestly, there is a more interesting difference between a function and a metafunction.

Power at Compile Time

When you study the previous program powerHybrid.cpp in C++ Insights, you see that each usage of Power with a different template argument creates a new type.

This means that the invocation  Power<2>(10) causes the recursive template instantiation for Power<1>(10), and Power<0>(10). Here is the output of C++ Insights.


 To sum up my observation. Each template instantiation creates a new type.

Creating New Types

When you use a template such as Power, std::vector, or std::array, you can invoke it with two kinds of arguments: function arguments and template arguments. The function arguments go into the round brackets (( ... )) and the template arguments go into the sharp brackets (<...>). The template arguments create new types. Or, to put it the other way around. You can parameterize templates in two ways: at compile time with sharp brackets (<...>). and at run time with round brackets (( ... ).


auto res1 = Power<2>(10);                       // (1)
auto res2 = Power<2>(11);                       // (2)
auto rest3 = Power<3>(10);                      // (3)

std::vector<int> myVec1(10);                    // (1)
std::vector<int> myVec2(10, 5);                 // (2)
std::vector<double> myDouble(5);                // (3)

std::array<int, 3> myArray1{ 1, 2, 3};          // (1)
std::array<int, 3> myArray2{ 1, 2, 3};          // (2)
std::array<double, 3> myArray3{ 1.1, 2.2, 3.3}; // (3)


  • (1) creates a new Power instance, std::vector of length 10, or a std::array with three elements
  • (2) reuses the already created types in the previous lines (1)
  • (3) creates a new type

A few of my German readers already pointed it out. My metafunction Power has a significant flaw.

The Big Flaw

When I instantiate Power with a negative or too-big number, I get undefined behavior.

  1. Power<-1>(10) causes an infinite template instantiation because the boundary condition Power<0>(10) does not apply.
  2. Power<200>(10) causes an int overflow.

The first issues can be fixed by using a static_assert inside the Power template: static_assert(n >= 0, "exponent must be >= 0");. There is no simple solution for the second issue.


// powerHybridRuntimeOverflow.cpp

#include <iostream>

template<int n>
int Power(int m){
    return m * Power<n-1>(m);

int Power<0>(int m){
    return 1;

int main() {
    std::cout << '\n';

    auto Power10of = Power<10>;

    for (int i = 0; i <= 20; ++i) {
        std::cout << "Power10of(" << i << ")= "
                  << Power10of(i)  << '\n';

    std::cout << '\n';



The overflow starts with Power10of(9). pow(9, 10) is 3,486,784,40


My Disclaimer

 At the end of these three posts, "Template Metaprogramming - How it All Started", "Template Metaprogramming - How it Works" about template metaprogramming, I have to make a disclaimer. I don't want that you use templates to program at compile time. Most of the time, constexpr (C++11) or consteval (C++20 is the better choice.

I explained template metaprogramming for two reasons.

  1. Template metaprogramming helps you better understand templates and the process of template instantiation.
  2. The type-traits library applies the idea and uses the conventions of template metaprogramming.

What's next?

In my next post, I will write about the type-traits library.  The type-traits library (C++11) is template metaprogramming in a beautiful guise.


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