The remaining atomics - in contrast to std::atomic_flag - are partial or full specializations of the class template std::atomic. Let's start with std::atomic<bool>.
Atomics guarantee two characteristics. On the one hand, they are atomic, on the other, they provide synchronization and order constraints on the program execution.
The atomics are the base of the C++ memory model. Per default, sequential consistency is applied.
Since C++11, C++ has a memory model. It is the foundation for multithreading. Without it, multithreading is not well defined.
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